Articles Tagged with implied consent

The 4thAmendment right put to the test: Unlawful search and seizure

On September 25, 2012, the US Supreme Court agreed to hear Missouri, Petitioner v. Tyler G. McNeely. The decision could affect DUI blood test consent cases throughout the nation.

The high court will rule on the issue of when the police need a warrant to draw blood from a suspect stopped on DUI, if they refuse a blood test. The law requires consent by the suspect to for the blood test to be administered, or in the alternative, with a warrant by police. The warrant could be waived, however, under the following circumstances:

• A delay could threaten a life; or
• A delay would destroy potential evidence.

In this case, the suspect refused both the breath test, and was also unwilling to take a blood test. The police proceeded with the chemical blood test which reportedly was 0.154% and exceeded the legal limit in Missouri of .08%.

The defendant moved to suppress the blood test on the challenge that since he did not consent to the test; the officer did not seek a warrant; and the officer was not concerned about any delay jeopardizing the evidence. As a result, the defendant’s challenge was that it violation of his 4th Amendment Rights against unreasonable search and seizures.

The lower court suppressed the DUI blood test evidence, and the Missouri Supreme Court sided affirmed the lower trial court’s ruling. The US Supreme Court is expected to hear the case in January 2013.

Arizona DUI Blood Test Consent Laws

The Arizona Supreme Court also held that under A.R.S. § 28-1321 the suspect must either expressly consent. In the case of a refusal the e police must have a warrant to administer a blood test. A warrant will be granted, if the police have just cause to believe a motorist was driving impaired due to alcohol or drugs. If the driver refuses the breath test, or does not consent to the blood test, civil penalties will be imposed including a one year loss of driver’s license. The refusal will also be held against them in court. Refusals are perceived as an act of non-cooperation, or that the driver refused because they knew they would test positive for drugs or alcohol.

DUI Defense Attorney Mesa AZ

If you were arrested for any DUI you will need to address both the Civil Court penalties and the Criminal Court charges. You should always consult a qualified Criminal attorney before pleading guilty to a drunk driving or DUI charges. In addition to civil penalties, sentencing for convictions also include jail; fines, fees, assessment costs, drug or alcohol screening, and use of Ignition Interlock Device (IID) on your vehicle. If retained, your attorney will represent you, defend your charges, make sure your rights are not violated, and work to get the best resolution in your case.

Additional Resources:

US Supreme Court Docket – Missouri, Petitioner v. Tyler G. McNeely

Arizona State Legislature – Implied Consent Laws

Arizona Governor’s Office of Highway Safety Programs

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In Carillo v. Houser Maricopa County, the Arizona Supreme Court held that the Implied Consent Law, A.R.S. § 28-1321 did not authorize police to conduct DUI blood testing without a warrant. The exception is if the suspect expressly gives their consent for officers to administer the chemical test.
It is not enough for a suspect to object to the blood or urine test. They must expressly refuse, or consent to it. Failure of a person to expressly agree, or to consent to completing the chemical test is considered a refusal.

If a driver refuses a DUI breath test the police may obtain a warrant to collect a blood or urine sample. In order to obtain a warrant the police must have “probable cause” to believe that a motorist was driving impaired under the influence of drugs or alcohol.
If a driver refuses to participate in the chemical testing, there are civil and criminal consequences. A refusal of a DUI chemical testing with a valid warrant will result in a 12 month suspension of the motorist’s driver’s license. The police may proceed with a DUI arrest with probable cause for DUI charges.

Arizona Implied Consent Law

Under the Implied Consent Law A.R.S. § 28-1321 a motorist driving in Arizona inherently gives their consent to DUI breath, blood or urine test if requested by police to determine if they are driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
The Police Officer who makes the DUI stop decides what type of test should be administered. The officer must have cause to believe that the person was driving or in actual physical control of a motor vehicle either alcohol or drugs.

Implied Consent Law – Underage 21 Drinking

Arizona is a “Zero Tolerance” state with regard to underage 21 drinking. This means an underage drinker may be arrested for being under the influence of any alcohol in their blood stream. The Implied Consent Law A.R.S. § 28-1321 also gives authority to police in Arizona to administer chemical testing to a person under the age of 21 years of age. They police may administer the test to determine if the person under age 21 has in their body, whether or not they were driving or in actual physical control of a vehicle.

DUI Lawyer Tempe AZ – Defense

If you were arrested for DUI based on breath or blood testing, there may defenses you are not aware of that can lead to suppression of evidence or even a dismissal of charges. An arrest is not a conviction. Anyone arrested has a constitutional right to defend their charges. In order to make sure your rights are protected, and to defend your charges, you should always retain the services of a qualified criminal defense attorney.

Additional Resources:

Arizona Legislature Implied Consent Law

Arizona Legislature DUI law

Arizona Supreme Court JOSE CARRILLO v. HON. ROBERT HOUSER Ref: CV-09-0285-PR
Arizona Department of Transportation

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Arizona Marijuana DUI Defense
The passing of Medical Marijuana Prop 203 does not affect Arizona’s Drug DUI laws.
The fact that you may be a qualified card holder to use Marijuana (pot, weed, grass, cannabis) does not give you immunity against the strict Arizona DUI laws. If you are stopped by the police and determined to be driving “impaired to the slightest degree” with Marijuana in your system, you may be arrested or charged with an Arizona DUI. If you have been arrested or charged with a Drug DUI or Marijuana DUI you should consult an Arizona drug defense, criminal defense, or DUI lawyer as soon as possible to discuss your Arizona DUI charges and defense options.

Arizona Marijuana DUI Laws
Arizona Law prohibits use of driving a vehicle while “impaired to the slightest degree”, due to any drug, alcohol, vapor releasing, intoxicating, or toxic substance in the body. Arizona DUI laws are strict.

Even if you are a certified card holder for Arizona medical Marijuana use, or you have taken any other drug legally prescribed by a licensed physician, or an over-the-counter drug at your local drug store, A.R.S. 28-1381 3.B. will apply. Below are portions of the
Arizona DUI drug laws:
Arizona Revised Statutes
“A.R.S. 28-1381. Driving or actual physical control while under the influence; trial by jury; presumptions; admissible evidence; sentencing; classification
A. It is unlawful for a person to drive or be in actual physical control of a vehicle in this state under any of the following circumstances:

1. While under the influence of intoxicating liquor, any drug, a vapor releasing substance containing a toxic substance or any combination of liquor, drugs or vapor releasing substances if the person is impaired to the slightest degree….

3. While there is any drug defined in section 13-3401 or its metabolite in the person’s body…

B. It is not a defense to a charge of a violation of subsection A, paragraph 1 of this section that the person is or has been entitled to use the drug under the laws of this state.

C. A person who is convicted of a violation of this section is guilty of a class 1 misdemeanor….”
(Cited in Part: Arizona State Website azleg.state.az.us/)

Arizona DUI with Marijuana Testing | DUI Marijuana evidence
The most common way Arizona police test for DUI with Marijuana is through blood testing and Urine testing. Both are controversial with regard to the test results and may be argued by your marijuana DUI defense lawyer as to whether or not they are admissible or should be suppressed as improper evidence depending on many circumstances. The prosecution will usually insist without justifiable circumstances that the blood or urine testing is accurate and admissible as evidence to use against you. A good Arizona defense Attorney will examine the evidence to determine if a compelling argument can be made to suppress it and file the proper motions.

Arizona Marijuana DUI Penalties
Arizona has some of the toughest laws in the country for Drug DUI and any DUI. Below are jail or prison guidelines for DUI convictions. Note this chart does not include other penalties, fines, fees or punishments that apply for Phoenix DUI convictions. References are from A.R.S. 28 – 1381, 28-1382, and 28-1383:

• First DUI (non-extreme) .08+ BAC……………… 24 Hours in Jail
• Second DUI (non-extreme) .08+ BAC……………..30 Days in Jail
• First DUI Extreme .15+ BAC ……………………. .30 Days in Jail
• Second DUI Extreme .15+ BAC……………………. 120 Days in Jail
• First DUI Super Extreme .20+ BAC……………….. 45 Days in Jail
• 2nd Super Extreme .20+ BAC……………………..180 Days in jail
• Felony DUI (with aggravated classification)……4 Months in Prison
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Arizona Marijuana DUI Defense Attorney
The criminal justice system in Arizona is a maze of procedures, protocol, turbulent legislation, and is not empathetic to persons charged with DUI, or DUI with drugs of any kind. The job of the Arizona prosecution is to convict you. They are not there to help you or to examine defense strategies to help you defend yourself. The judge can not do anything to help you unless proper motions and compelling arguments in your defense are presented through the proper legal channels. You will need a strong criminal defense attorney, Arizona DUI lawyer or criminal defense attorney in Arizona. There is too much for you at stake to go unrepresented by a proper Arizona DUI lawyer. They will be the your ally you need to protect your rights, make sure you are treated fairly, defend you, and do everything possible, to try to get your charges dismissed, reduced or the otherwise best outcome in your case.

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