Arizona Criminal Defense Attorney Blog

Arizona Supreme Court Ruling: AMMA Users have an Affirmative defense for DUI. They can show they did not have a high enough concentration of THC to cause impairment.

marijuana smoke 3 LargeThe Arizona Supreme Court provided a unanimous decision in a recent Marijuana DUI ruling.  The court took a closer look at how the AMMA impacts prosecution.

The Supreme Court ruled that Medical Marijuana card holders are not immune from prosecution under the state’s DUI law, which prohibits drivers from having in their blood marijuana or another chemical compound that causes impairment.

At the same time, the court also ruled cardholders, do in fact, have a limited affirmative defense under the AMMA. But it is a limited DUI Defense. The AMMA does not, and does not provide general immunity from prosecution.

If a qualified user is facing marijuana DUI charges, they can provide a evidence or testimony showing they didn’t have a high enough concentration of the active ingredient THC, in Marijuana, to cause driving impairment.

If they are successful in their challenge of impairment, they may avoid a conviction.


This article will cover the following topics:

  • Arizona Supreme Court Ruling on Marijuana DUI;
  • Impacts of Ruling on Arizona Drivers;
  • Affirmative Defenses in Arizona;
  • When the Safe Harbor defense for Medical Practitioner Prescribed Drugs applies;
  • 5 types of evidence that can be used to provide a showing of non-impairment;
  • How many Puff’s does it take to cause Driver Impairment? 
  • Criminal Defense for Marijuana DUI Charges Mesa AZ

   Arizona Supreme Court Case Overview

Petitioners made no effort to show that the marijuana was in an insufficient concentration to cause impairment.” –  Arizona Supreme Court 

The case involved two defendants, both charged with two counts of driving under the influence:  a violation of A.R.S. § 28-1381(A)(1) and a violation of A.R.S. § 28-1381(A)(3).

The former, (A)(1), prohibits someone from driving while under the influence of any drug if he or she is impaired to the slightest degree.

The latter, (A) (2), prohibits driving while there is any of certain enumerated drugs or their metabolites in the person’s body. Both defendants had taken blood tests that showed they had marijuana and its metabolites in their bodies.

One of the defendants wanted to present evidence of her medical marijuana card in another state, but the municipal court denied her motion. The other held an Arizona medical marijuana card, but the municipal court granted the state’s motion to preclude this evidence from being introduced.

The State dismissed the (A)(1) charge, for driver impairment.

But the defendants were convicted of the (A)(3) charge which states that a person is in violation of a violation of the DUI law if they are driving with any drug found in their system which falls within the state’s drug definitions A.R.S. 13-3401 that includes “Cannabis”. 

The defendants appealed to the Maricopa County Superior Court, which affirmed the convictions. They then appealed to the Arizona court of appeals, which ruled that there was no immunity for defendants holding marijuana cards when charged with (A)(3).

The defendants asked the Arizona Supreme Court to review the case.

The Court explained that with an (A)(3) charge, unlike an (A)(1) charge, the state isn’t required to prove actual impairment.

The defenses for these charges are also different.  With an (A)(1) charge where a person is in violation of the law if they are driving impaired due to drugs or alcohol.  With that, it is not a valid defense against impairment to challenge the violations on the ground that the user has a medical marijuana card.

With the (A)(3) charge involving driving under the influence of the state’s defined drugs, there is an Affirmative Defense available.  This defense makes it lawful to drive under the influence of the state’s defined drugs, if they the drugs are prescribed by a licensed doctor.

The Court explained that the Arizona Medical Marijuana Act (AMMA) immunizes registered qualifying patients for their medical use of marijuana, but the immunity is limited.

AMMA’s § 36-2802 provides immunity to qualified patients who use marijuana to the extent that a registered qualifying patient shall not be considered to be under the influence of marijuana solely because of the presence of metabolites or components of marijuana that appear in insufficient concentration to cause impairment.

The Court also held that possessing a registry card can create a rebuttable presumption that a particular person is using marijuana as permitted by AMMA, as long as he or she isn’t in possession of more than the permitted amount.   This means that the police, prosecution, and court will assume it is true, unless the facts are challenged and proven otherwise.

Generally a defendant may be convicted of an (A)(3) violation if the state is able to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the driver had marijuana or an impairing metabolite in her body while driving a vehicle.

As a defense, the defendant may show by a preponderance of the evidence that use was authorized by AMMA, and that the amount of marijuana was not enough to cause impairment. Simply presenting a registry card is not enough to establish this defense.

The defendants argued that it was unfair to place the burden of proof on them because there is no threshold that is commonly accepted as Continue reading

Impact of Appeals Court Ruling on Arizona Drivers

Your Guide to understanding the DUI blood test with medical treatment warrant exception.

A DUI blood test taken by Police for investigating impairment is considered a search and seizure, protected by our 4th Amendment rights.

This means that to obtain DUI blood or chemical evidence police would need either consent; or a warrant to order a DUI blood or chemical test.

There are exceptions to the requirement of a warrant. One of these exceptions under Arizona Law is DUI blood test or testing incidental to medical treatment.

Police can request a blood or chemical test be taken for criminal investigation reasons incidental to Medical Treatment.

This exception is often used following an accident, when the police suspect the driver may have been impaired due to alcohol or drugs.

If the police have probable cause, they can bypass a warrant, and request a DUI blood or chemical test from the medical provider treating the driver.

Under A.R.S. section 28-1388(E), if an Arizona police officer has probable cause to believe someone has violated the statute that prohibits driving under the influence (A.R.S. S 28-1381), and blood or another bodily substance is taken from that person, and enough of the sample that is sufficient for analysis will be provided to a police officer if requested for law enforcement objectives.

However, a DUI blood test cannot be requested by police if the suspect has expressly rejected medical care.

Precedent case rulings on this issue have held that if the treatment is not obtained voluntarily, than neither was the DUI blood test.

The scope of this exception was the subject of a recent Arizona appellate decision which we will discuss in this article.

                            DUI Testing with Medical Treatment in absence of a Warrant

[Arizona Court of Appeals Division 1 – No. 1 CA-CR 12-0780 10-20-15]

In this case, the defendant appealed from convictions for reckless manslaughter, endangerment, and possession of narcotic drugs. The defendant argued that the court shouldn’t have denied his motion to suppress his blood test results, which were secured for law enforcement objectives under A.R.S. section 28-1388(E).

The case arose when the defendant hurt four people and killed a pedestrian in a head-on collision while speeding in a residential area early one evening. Hospital personnel took blood from him, and the blood test results showed he was high on meth and heroin at the time of the crash. Witnesses later gave testimony about his erratic driving and related conduct.

The defendant was charged with second-degree murder, possession, or use of narcotics, and four counts of endangerment. All of these are felony counts. He made a motion to suppress the results of the blood test on the grounds that it was secured without probable cause or a warrant and that he had expressly refused medical care at the time.

At the hearing on the motion to suppress, the defendant did not testify, but the court heard testimony from six witnesses. The witnesses, who were police officers and paramedics, testified that a nurse was tending to the defendant when they arrived. He was flailing and screaming and wouldn’t answer questions. One officer had been an EMT before becoming a police officer and testified that the defendant’s speech was slurred and that she couldn’t understand him in his delirium. Another officer saw syringes and an uncapped needle inside the car.

The defendant aggressively pushed away the paramedics and tried to hit them with a closed fist. However, the paramedics testified that due to the severity of his injuries, they needed a doctor’s clearance to not take him to the hospital, and they couldn’t get that. They effectively transported him against his will. He continued to be aggressive in the ambulance. Another officer said his behavior was consistent with someone drunk or high.

At the hearing for the motion to suppress, the lower court found that while it was possible to view the defendant’s conduct as a rejection of medical care, it wasn’t enough to count as a clear, unambiguous rejection of medical treatment. Accordingly, the lower court denied the motion to suppress the blood test.

The jury found the defendant guilty, and he was sentenced to 15 years for the manslaughter, as well as three years of imprisonment on each of the other convictions. He appealed.

The appellate court explained that a blood draw is considered a search under the Fourth Amendment. There are three constitutionally permissible ways in which police can get a blood sample: (1) by showing probable cause and getting a warrant, (2) express or implied consent, and (3) the exception provided by A.R.S. section 28-1388(E) that allows a police officer with probable cause to take part of a blood sample taken for another reason. However, the third way cannot be used if someone unambiguously, clearly, and expressly exercises their constitutional right to refuse medical treatment.

The issues before the appellate court were (1) whether the State had probable cause to believe there was a violation of A.R.S. S 28-1381, and (2) whether there was an express refusal of medical treatment. The appellate court found that the testimony of the officers showed there was probable cause. It found that there was no evidence to show the police asked that the defendant be taken to the hospital. There were also no oral statements made by the defendant specifically asking not to get medical assistance. The conviction was affirmed. Read More > Continue reading

1st Place - The Expert Institute 2015 Best Legal Blog Contest

“Feeling gratitude and not expressing it is like 

wrapping a present and not giving it.”

-William Arthur Ward  

The Expert Institute recently announced the results of their 2015 Best Legal Blog Contest.


Though heard often, these two words carry the utmost sincerity, gratitude and appreciation.  

Thanks to all friends, friends of friends; family, extended families, and neighbors.

Thanks to peers, peer networks; social media friends, connections, communities, and groups who voted and shared to their own friend networks and campaigned on my behalf.

Thanks to all loyal readers of our blog.

Thanks to all of you for whom I have not had the fortune of meeting, but still you voted, shared, and showed your support in the The Expert Institute 2015 Legal Blog Contest.

Thanks to all the guest authors who have contributed to the Blog articles.  You have added value, authority, and enriched the content and benefit for the readers.

Thank-you to all contestants for your unique and interesting Blogs. They were of the highest quality and benefit to readers.   It was an honor to be competing with your Blogs.  I knew that winning would no easy task for any contestant.

Congratulations to all the winners in all categories.  Your victories were well deserved.

Thanks to the Sponsor of the campaign, The Expert Institute hosting this well run contest.

Thanks to Joe O’neill, Senior Associate, Marketing, at The Expert Institute, who kept us informed and well instructed throughout the contest.  He worked very hard to make it a huge success.

“Depth of friendship does not depend on length of acquaintance.”  – Rabindranath Tagore

                         Lessons Learned                                 

I learned that participation in an industry contest is a lot harder than it looks.

I learned that while you might have the best blog entry in the contest, it will not be recognized as such, unless you promote it.

I learned that to be a competitive, you must set aside your pride, and ask for help.  There is no indignity in teamwork.

I learned that creative, enthusiastic, and committed volunteers are the key to success.

I learned that people  genuinely are willing to help if asked, and want to see you succeed.  In the least, if they took the time to vote, they want to make sure it counts.

I learned that others will take the contest only as seriously as you do.

I learned contests can be a lot of fun.  I enjoyed engaging with old friends on social media, and making many new friends at the ones.

I learned that if you look for the goodness in others, and expect the best in them, you will find it.

I learned that there are no strangers on Social Media.

There are no strangers here; Only friends you haven’t yet met.

– William Butler Yeats

                                                                 Memorable Moments 

There were a lot of memorable moments  behind the scenes during the contest. This was especially the case, in the way of comments and interactions on social media.

Interacting helped me to identify three key elements which I think will help anyone succeed:

  1. Strategy, teamwork, and utilization of every your resource in your arsenal;
  2. Work hard until the last minute of the race; reach high for 1st place; and never give up;
  3. Have fun; Let people give what they wish to give. Accept graciously. Acknowledge every act of support.

I.  Strategy, teamwork, and utilization of every resource in your arsenal

Google Plus Community Post  – These are just a few of 36 comments on this Post 

(Throughout the post are comments in red to illustrate my reality checks at the time).    

Me Post: What do you all think about this integration of “We Dig” movement, “Collections” and  our “Campaigns” all in one?   Also, I would really would appreciate your “We Dig” Vote for my Blog!  

Monika: Sorry it won’t let me vote…

(Wait, wait, this can’t be happening…OK, Just breathe).

Me:  Thank-you for trying, and thank-you for the heads up so I an check it out. Anyone should be able to vote. :-(  I need to check this out. 

George:  I can dig it. If I were you I would add some blog posts into your collection.

(I didn’t expect to get help with campaign strategy. And I need all the help I can get. Go George!) 

Fran:  I think you’re right on. How could I not vote for fellow Arizonian.

 (This might just work. The Arizona home team approves). 

Melinda: Great idea. I voted and it went through even though it said “already voted”.

 (I wonder how many people tried to vote and couldn’t?  Oh no, it’s Saturday, and we won’t be able to contact The Expert Institute for guidance.  How many votes will I lose this weekend?  We’re doomed.) 

Patti:  We Dig Voting for James Novak! Done. Good luck.  

(OK, calming down now. Patti’s vote counted.) Outsourcing Strategy, Teamwork, Al.lTust 3   

George: You need to include a CTA in each post.

(Wow, George is sharing more ideas for strategy. I’m not leaving this thread for anything. George, you rock!) 

Me: George what’s a CTA? 

George:  “Call to Action”. 

(Oh, right…I knew that:-) 

Sue: I have voted for you James Novak. And I love the We Dig image. 

(OK Litmus test for “We Dig” passed.)

Jim:  After clicking the link, I saw an orange button on your website that said “Already Voted 54+” At first I was baffled thinking it implied the button was incorrectly reflecting that somehow I had already voted. I searched around to see if there was some other button I could push. Finding none, I said “What the heck” and clicked on the orange button to see what would happen. Darned if it didn’t refresh and say “Voted 59+”. What?!… 

(Jim wanted to make sure his vote counted as much as I did! How cool is that? He was on a mission to find out, so that we could share instructions in posts for people. Right on Jim!) 

Monica:   I tried it again! And now, in this minute, the voting seems to run in the correct way:
Click on: “vote” (=thumbs up) on the left side. Immediately the number will count one up   etc.

(Monica then provides step by step instructions on the correct way to cast your vote. Go Monica!)            

II. Work hard until the last minute of the race; reach high for 1st place

“Donny” Campaigning on Facebook

Helping Hand 3 _FullDonny: James, where are we?                                           

Me: We’re in 5th place.   

Donny:  That’s not good enough….

Me: We’re in 4th place…

Donny: Where are we now?

Me: Oh my gosh, we just moved to 3rd place! 

Donny: That won’t do. We’re not done here… 

I was excited to be in 3rd or 4th place, up from 9th. But Donny wouldn’t settle for that.  He reminded me that we were in to win.  No slowing down or settling with less.   Rock on Donny! 

III. Acknowledge every act of support; Let people give what they wish to give, and accept graciously.

“T.L.”  Campaigning Everywhere!

T.L:  James, How many now?                            

Me:  1800  and something.                                

T.L:  That’s not enough. I told my family, and called on more of them in Vietnam.  I told them that everybody loves James’ blog.  I told them that you help a lot of people when they make a mistake like getting a DUI, and get arrested. So they need to vote for your blog.     

Me:  Thank-you so much!  

T.L:  My daughter also teaches Taekwondo Class and has lot’s of students.  She is going to spread the word there and ask them to share with their friends too.      

Me.  Wow. that’s awesome. Please extend my thanks to her for that. 

T.L:  And I told my friend that if she spreads the word I will make her some egg noodles. She loves my egg noodles!   rice-1329209-639x493

Me: T.L.  Great! Let’s have a voting – egg noodle party. What can I bring?  

T.L. was a loyal and generous volunteer. She never stopped giving and campaigning. She was creative and tapped into everything in her arsenal. Thank-you T.L. I will be forever grateful. Now about that egg noodle party… 

The Law Office of James Novak is committed to the goal of providing high quality law educational resources and articles you can use.

We have great articles and topics in store for the end of the year 2015 and 2016. We hope you stay connected for more interesting and resourceful articles.

Thank-you again everyone!

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Aggravated Assault - Justification - Crime Prevention Defense: Arizona Court of Appeals Overturns Conviction

  ♦ Featuring Tips from Authorities: How to Safely Respond (or not) to Road Rage ♦

Our Federal and State Constitutions afford us the right to bear arms, to protect ourselves, our families, and others from immediate harm due to serious crimes in progress.

So why then, must we be concerned with facing criminal charges if we exercise those rights?

The answer to this question is two-fold:

First there’s a fine line between what we may feel is justified and what the language of the law dictates.

Second,  the police, prosecution, court and jury may not feel the actions were as justified as we did under the same circumstances.

So while it is true we have these rights, we must be prepared to defend our actions.

In this article we outline a recent Arizona Court of Appeals case that began as a road rage incident.

The defendant was convicted of Aggravated Assault with a deadly weapon.  He appealed his conviction, challenging the jury instructions provided in the trial.

At the heart of the case were two important legal concepts, that proved to be central to the verdicts:

  1. Arizona’s “Justification – Crime Prevention” Defense;
  2. The importance of accurate and complete Jury Instructions

The discussion topics in this article are broken down into the following 8 segments:

  • Incident – Circumstances that led up to the incident;
  • Why the Jury got it Wrong/ Why the jury ruled the way they did;                                 
  • Appeals Court Extended Summary;
  • Arizona’s 15 Justification Defenses;
  • Justification Use of Force – Crime Prevention;
  • Arizona Aggravated Assault with Deadly Weapon Laws;
  • What to do if you find yourself the target of Road Rage;
  • Criminal Defense for Aggravated Assault Charges in Arizona

                                                           Part I –  The Incident  

The defendant was driving with his fiancé and her 4 year old daughter in the vehicle.

Following a minor traffic mishap, another driver began honking and tailgating them.

The angry driver (victim) pulled up alongside the defendant’s vehicle in road rage.

The angry driver waved a gun while pulled up next to their vehicle, frightening the passengers.

At the next stop light, the defendant got out of his vehicle, and brandished his own gun.

The defendant stood there, with his gun. But he did not move to harm the victim;

The light turned green.  The defendant got back in his vehicle, and drove away.

The victim continued to chase him, and ran two red lights in the process.

The victim then called #9-1-1 reported the defendant.

The Police dispatcher repeatedly urged the victim to stop chasing the defendant, and to return to a nearby shopping center to meet an awaiting police officer.

The victim did not immediately obey the dispatcher, but did finally retreat and return to the shopping center.

The victim then took a detour to another area of the shopping center before meeting the officer.

Once stopped, the officer searches the victim’s vehicle but did not find any weapons. The victim denies having a gun.

The defendant was subsequently charged with aggravated assault with a deadly weapon.

The defendant chose to go to trial to prove his innocence.

The jury found the defendant guilty. He was sentenced to 5 years in prison for Aggravated Assault with a deadly weapon.  Read More… Continue reading

Your Vote Counted - We made it to The Expert Institute’s Best Blog Contest Finals.

Thanks to each of you who nominated our blog for the Expert Institute’s Best Legal Blog Contest.

♦You can cast your vote right from this page for the finals.♦

We would sincerely appreciate your help in sharing this with our call to action as well.

We are grateful to announce that our Arizona DUI & Criminal Defense Lawyer Blog, has been selected for the competition finals as one of 250 law blogs from a field of more than 2,000 potential nominees.

Now that the blogs have been nominated and placed into their respective categories, it is up to you, the readers to select the very best to win one of the largest competitions for law article writing online today of its kind.

The next stage of the competition will run from August 27, 2015 to until the close of voting at 12:00 AM on October 9, 2015; the votes will be tallied and the winners announced.                                       

Can We Get Your Vote?

Vote Here

To vote, simply visit this The Expert Institute’s Blog Contest Voting Page. 

Then vote for James Novak, Law Office of James Novak’s Arizona Criminal Defense Blog.

Just check the “Vote” box.

Thank-you for Voting!

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What to do if you are being assaulted by police: Your rights, defenses, & remedies in Phoenix, AZ

Part I of II


This collaborative two part series was inspired by my friend and colleague, Eyitayo Ogunyemi, LL.B, B.L, Attorney and Human Rights Advocate in Lagos, Nigeria.

Nigeria USA Flag

This is part I of II which applies to Phoenix, AZ laws, in the USA.

Eyitayo Ogunyemi has written Part II, which applies to Lagos, Nigerian laws.

To symbolize human rights, we have chosen the number “15”, to represent 15 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, that often involve police brutality if violated. They include:

Freedom from slavery; Freedom of opinion or expression; Right to peacefully assemble; Freedom from non-discrimination;  Freedom from brutality and torture; Freedom inhumane or degrading treatment;  Freedom from arbitrary arrest, detention or exile; Freedom of thought, conscience and religion; Right to equality;  Right to life, liberty and security;  Right to remedies for violations of human rights under the law; Right to trial; Right to presumption of innocence until proven guilty; Right to adequate shelter, food, clothing, medical care and other fundamental needs; Right to protection against interference or attacks against privacy, family, home, honor, reputation,  or correspondence.

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Why Two Appeals Court Rulings Contrasted: Justices Review Effects of AMMA on Marijuana Odor on Probable Cause.

In late July, two different Appeals Courts in Arizona released contrasting opinions involving appeals to dismiss the Marijuana evidence due to lack of probable cause for the search.

In both cases the defendants argued that the effects of Arizona Medical Marijuana Act (AMMA) were that the smell of Marijuana should not be used for determination of Probable cause.

In one case the conviction was reversed.  In the other case the conviction was affirmed.  Here we find out why they differed.

Arizona Appeals Court Ruling – Case #1 (No. 2 CA-CR 2014-0181)

On July 20, 2015, the Arizona Court of Appeals Division Two issued the first ruling.

The Court considered the effect that the Arizona Medical Marijuana Act (AMMA) had on probable cause to for issuance of search warrant, based on an odor of Marijuana.

In this case, the Appeals Court ruled that the scent of marijuana alone was insufficient evidence of criminal activity.

Therefore, it was not adequate to justify probable cause for search and seizure warrant.

The Appeals Court held that in order to satisfy the probable cause standard, the scent of the Marijuana would need to be combined with other evidence or facts, which were not presented in this case.

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Your Guide to Understanding Consequences of DUI with Accidents; and Unforeseen Parental Liability Actions


In a tragic turn of events, Phoenix police reported that a 14-year-old boy, driving a mid-size sedan, allegedly under the influence, sped through a red light signal and crashed into an SUV.

The SUV was carrying three people, a man, his girlfriend and his girlfriend’s three-year-old daughter.

The toddler was thrown from the SUV and sustained life threatening injuries.  The man suffered head and lung injuries.

The man’s girlfriend, a passenger in the SUV is listed in stable condition but still in the hospital late last week.

The 14-year-old driver of the sedan that ran the red light signal, and his 17- year-old passenger whom the police report were under the influence of alcohol both suffered minor injuries.

It is unclear who owned the sedan driven by the 14-year-old was driving.

The driver was later taken to the Juvenile Court Center.  The 17-year-old passenger was released to his family.

The 14-year-old has reportedly since been charged as an adult, and faces 4 counts of aggravated assault with a deadly weapon.

According to Maricopa County Prosecutor and Court records, the decision to prosecute the youth as an adult was based on the severity of the accident and victim’s injuries.

A secured release bond was ordered by the judge for $100,000.00, and the next court date set.

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Police officers are not exempt from search warrant requirements, in order to perform community caretaking duties.

Unlawful Home Search Under the Fourth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution and the Arizona Constitution, you have a right to be free from unreasonable searches and seizures.
This means that in most cases, a warrant is required to search your home, with few exceptions.

The exceptions include situations where “exigent circumstances” exist.

This allows police to make a warrantless entry when they have probable cause to arrest a suspect who has fled, or to stop the imminent destruction of evidence.

Another exception is that the police may make a protective sweep incident to a lawful arrest.

Still another exception is an entry due to an objectively reasonable basis for believing someone within the house needs immediate aid.

Recently, the Arizona Supreme Court limited warrantless searches in connection with the “Community Caretaking Exception,” which is the topic of this discussion.

The Incident

In this case, police officers and paramedics went to the defendant’s residence after receiving calls from neighbors, complaining that the defendant was behaving erratically.

When police and paramedics arrived, the defendant told them that he and his family had been handling up to seven pounds of mercury inside the home, which was being kept in the home in a glass jar.

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Overview of new law: Qualified first responders and training; Liability & Immunities; Good Samaritan Laws; Criminal Penalties & Defense

Overview of AZ HB 2489: Combatting Heroin Overdoses

A bill we have been following closely, AZ HB 2489 was passed on April 10, 2015. The expected  effective date is July 3, 2015. Arizona now joins 26 other US states that have passed similar legislation.

First responder’s administration of opiate reversal injections, have been credited with saving over 10,000 lives in the USA where overdoses were reversed.

According to the National Centers for Disease Control (CDC), accidental overdose is now the number one cause of death in the USA, exceeding even automobile accidents for people among the age of 25 and 64.

Earlier this year, the CDC reported that heroin overdose deaths nearly quadrupled between 2000 and 2013.  An increasing number of Arizona residents have been overdosing on heroin and opiate-based painkillers like Codeine.  Arizona is now the sixth-highest state for heroin overdose fatalities.

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