Arizona Criminal Defense Attorney Blog

Guy Drinking Bar - shutterstock_40585228_edited-1.jpgDUI Field Sobriety Tests

Field Sobriety Tests are a battery of preliminary roadside test that police administer to detect DUI drivers. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) developed to these roadside tests to be used in early detection of DUI impaired, and DWI drivers. Police officers are formally trained and accredited to administer the tests. They are conducted on the roadside at a DUI stop. The police must have a motorist’s consent of the driver in order to administer them, because they are not mandatory in Arizona.

Standard Field Sobriety Tests
Police officers have been known to conduct other DUI sobriety tests. However, NHTSA has only approved three official FSTs, known as Standard Field Sobriety Tests (SFST):

1. The Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN);
2. The Walk-and-Turn;
3. The One-Leg Stand.

If any other FSTs were conducted, outside of the SFSTs, your criminal defense attorney can move to have the results suppressed, so the results cannot be admitted as evidence against a suspect.

Consequences of Refusing Field Sobriety Testing in Scottsdale AZ

A driver stopped for DUI investigation, has the right to refuse the FSTs since they are not mandatory in Arizona. However, persons should be aware, that there are consequences of refusal. If you refuse the FST and the police feel they have other “probable cause” to make a DUI arrest, the may proceed with arresting someone on “suspicion of DUI”.

Why You Should Refuse to Take FSTs

Most attorneys will advise you to politely refuse to participate in any Field Sobriety Testing. You have a constitutional right to avoid self-incrimination. In most cases these roadside tests will not serve to help a suspect’s defense, whether they are driving impaired due to alcohol or drugs or unimpaired. There are many reasons for this:

• Historically, and statistically, even the Standard FSTs have proven inaccurate;
• The FSTs are administered, judged, and graded unilaterally by police officer who is trying to arrest you, often resulting in bias or non-objectivity of results;
• Many people unimpaired by alcohol or drugs cannot pass the roadside tests. If the suspect fails, it can be used as evidence against them, even if they were not under the influence of drugs or alcohol;
.
• NHTSA rules have strict guidelines regarding instructions and administration of the test; environmental factors; lighting; clothing; landscaping; traffic conditions; candidacy of persons taking it that relate to age, weight, medical conditions and more. If strict guidelines are not followed, the tests results may be invalid;
• They are generally used as evidence against a person and rarely if ever help their defense;
If you have taken or refused a field sobriety test and been arrested for DUI, you should always consult an experienced criminal defense attorney regarding your charges and defense options.

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DUI Arrest Based on Blood Test Results Mesa AZ

The police have discretion of whether or not to conduct a blood test or a breath test following a DUI stop in Arizona. Here are 5 reasons why an officer may decide to conduct a blood test over a breath test:

• Breath Test Refusal by the suspect:
• Suspect is not a good candidate;
• Breathalyzer machine non calibrated or in need of repair;
• Police Suspect a motorist is under the influence of chemical or drugs;
• Initial Portable Breathalyzer Test (PBT) was negative for alcohol.

Breath Test Refusal

In Arizona, a motorist has the option of refusing a breathalyzer test. However if they refuse and police believe they have probable cause to believe a person is under the influence of drug or alcohol, they will get a warrant to conduct a blood test. Also, if a suspect refuses the breath test, their driving privileges will be suspended for one year.

Not a Good Breathalyzer Test Candidate
In order for the breathalyzer test to be accurate or valid, optimal conditions must exist. Police must be sure to avoid substance interference. Medical Conditions such as heartburn or gastric reflux disease may skew the results of a BAC reading. Trial results have proven that stomach fluids may find their way into a suspect’s breath such as chewing tobacco; cough drops; belching or vomiting, or even alcohol may cause interference, causing test results to be inaccurate.


Breathalyzer in Need of Calibration or Repair

The official DUI Breathalyzer Intoxilyzer 8000 must be regularly maintained, and records to support its maintenance needs to be kept. Some machines, especially those that have been in use for a while, may have a history or needed repairs, or be in current need of repairs.


Police Suspect Drug DUI

Circumstances may cause the police to suspect a driver is under the influence of drugs instead of alcohol. Some reasons may include a person admits to being under the influence of drugs; the police witnessed a person using drugs; the police saw an illegal drug in plain sight when they approached a vehicle.

Initial Portable Breathalyzer Test (PBT) was negative for alcohol.
Generally, the police will first conduct a Portable Breath Test (PBT). Arizona does not allow the results of the PBT to be used as the sole source of evidence to obtain a conviction. This is because they are not maintained, calibrated, or subject to strict maintenance reporting guidelines like the official Breathalyzer Intoxilyzer 8000 machine. Its main purpose to either show positive or negative for alcohol use. If the results of the PBT are positive the police will proceed with formal breath test. If the results are negative, but police have probable cause to believe a person is under the influence of drugs, they will proceed with a blood or chemical test.

If you wish to defend your DUI charges, blood test, or breath test evidence you should always retain an experienced DUI attorney to represent you.

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Dring & Keys.JPG •The Laws in Arizona for DUI are strict, harsh, and frequently changing. If you are unrepresented, you are held to the same standard as an experienced criminal defense attorney. This means you will be held responsible for meeting time lines, filing appropriate motions, challenging your charges with the authority of proper legal citation; representing yourself at hearings; following rules of criminal procedures. Winning cases and losing cases, is often the result of a successful argument or challenge of any of these aspects and the different facets of a DUI.

• You may be completely not-guilty of the charges for which you were arrested or on trial, but the prosecution will not “tell your story” or produce any evidence that will help prove your innocence. That is not their job. The prosecutor generally will not point out weaknesses in the State’s case against you. Only your criminal defense attorney will look for defenses, mitigating factors or evidence that may lead to a dismissal or reduction in sentencing;
• Any information or answers to questions regarding your charges can result in unintended self-incrimination. You have a constitutional right to remain silent and retain legal counsel to defend your charges, and be present during any questioning or testimony. Representing one’s self increases a person’s chance of unintentional self-incrimination.

• The Presiding judge can only intervene on motions; plea agreements; granting or prohibiting evidence from being admitted; and sentencing. The Judge can’t dismiss the charges without formal or proper legal arguments or challenge is made on the evidence; to the law; or other matters surrounding your case; or there is a “Not-Guilty” verdict returned by the jury.

Arizona DUI laws are strict and penalties harsh. A first time Misdemeanor DUI calls for mandatory jail sentencing Ignition Interlock Device on vehicle; suspension of driver’s license; probation, costly fines, fees and assessments. DUI charges result in both criminal charges which are held in criminal court, and civil charges relating to the negative actions on a person’s driver’s license. A qualified criminal defense firm will protect your rights; defend your charges; make every effort to help avoid jail terms and other harsh sentencing.

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“Aggravated DUI” charges are Felony DUI offenses. Misdemeanor DUI charges are elevated to Felonies when specified ‘aggravating” factors under law surround it. One of the most reasons a Misdemeanor DUI is charged as felony is due to repeat DUI offenses. A third DUI charge, with two existing DUI convictions in 84 months or 7 years, will result in Aggravated DUI charges.
Aggravating Factors

Aggravated Factors” are those circumstances that elevate a Misdemeanor DUI to a Felony DUI under ARS § 28-1383 and include:

• Two prior DUI Conviction from any state in any state within in 7 years;
• DUI while driving with a suspended or revoked license;
• Drunk driving or driving impaired due to alcohol or drugs, with a minor, age 15 or under, in the vehicle;.
• DUI with accident that causes serious bodily harm to another person;
• DUI manslaughter – When the DUI and Auto accident results in a fatality of another
Felony DUI Penalties for 3rd DUI charge with two conviction in 7 years

Felony DUI charges are a class 4 felony. These convictions call for the following penalties under ARS 28 § 1383:

• 4 months in prison for 3rd DUI conviction/ months in prison for subsequent;
• Fine at least $750
• Assessment fees $3250.00
• Abatement fees
• Evaluation Costs
• Drug or Alcohol Treatment & Counseling Costs
• Probation and associated fees
• Driving Privileges may be revoked for up to 3 years
• Mandatory Court ordered Ignition Interlock Device (IID) 3 added to your vehicle at your expense, following reinstatement of license
• Court ordered drug or alcohol rehab or counseling treatment, and their costs
• Mandatory Community Service
• Criminal Record to include a Felony
• Restitution if an accident or injury was involved
• Other penalties may be apply if the Court deems necessary and appropriate
DUI defense attorney Tempe AZ
If you face Tempe DUI charges, you should consult a qualified criminal defense attorney regarding your matter. They will provide you with information concerning your charges, as well as your defense options. Arizona has harsh penalties for DUI charges. It is important that you understand the consequences before “pleading guilty” without proper legal representation. If you wish to invoke your right to retain an attorney on your behalf, you should “Plead Not Guilty” at your Arraignment. If you are not being represented, you must appear for your Arraignment. Failure to appear will result in a bench warrant for Arrest. If you hire legal counsel, they will advise you further regarding the proceedings. If retained your attorney will protect your rights, defend your charges, and work to get the best possible outcome in your case.

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Phoenix Drug Defense Attorney.jpg

TruNarc: Police Drug Detection
Police Departments around the Country have begun using TruNarc, a mobile device used for drug testing. The device can rapidly detect single or multiple compounds and drugs, including those more difficult to detect such as “bath salts”, within seconds. For the last 50 years police have used lab kits to test for narcotics or illegal drugs. In effect TruNarc in said to speed up the drug identification process, allowing police to be more efficient with their time, and decrease turnaround time in drug cases.
How it Works

The device has a laser which is pointed directly at the suspicious drug sample. It then generates a distinct spectrum, similar to a finger print. It is then analyzed for identification in the device’s drug library contained the unit. It can be easily updated for new dangerous or designer drugs. Records can be automatically produced, to include the name of the drug, time and date stamps and anything else the police department wishes to program into it.
Industry Recognition

The core technology used for the Thermo Scientific device uses “Raman spectroscopy”, which is recognized as an analytical tool by the “Scientific Working Group for the Analysis of Seized Drugs (SWGDRU). TruNarc’s results were compared to the same drug samples as certified laboratories. The conclusions were that TrucNarc had produced 80% – 100% positive results, with “0” false positive results.

Pros

Below are 7 items in favor of TruNarc Testing Device:
• Device is lightweight and easy to use;
• Immediate results; Eliminates need for backlogged and costly lab processing
• Detects compounded and new “designer”, bath salts and synthetic drugs;
• Can be used in addition to drug testing kit for presumptive testing;
• Nonintrusive. The test does not require contact;
• Reduces time for Criminal Case Resolutions:
• Police K-9 Dog Drug Screeners costs between $20,000.00 and $$29,000.00 to train. The cost of the device is equal or less for TruNarc $20,000.00 currently.

Cons

Below are 7 items that oppose TruNarc Technology for drug testing:

• Costly: $20,000.00 per device;
• Lack of background science, experience or reported statistics of use in the Field by police;
• Police officers would need to be trained to operate, minister, and maintain it;
• If adopted by the states, it will face much challenge by experts and criminal defense attorney, regarding administration, accuracy, validity, maintenance, and operation of the device (similar to the challenges that breathalyzers presented.);
• Technology may not prove to serve as an effective substitute for full lab analysis by a certified laboratory and trained lab professional;
• Judges around the country have yet to decide if the test results from TruNarc can be admissible in trial.
• No case law or documented challenges have been argued against it for drug charges involving the device.

Resources:

http://goo.gl/76gqM

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Criminal Arrest Phoenix AZ.jpg

A Simulated Explosive Device (SED) is a “Prohibited
Weapons” under Arizona Law ARS § 13-3101.
Misconduct with a Prohibited Weapon such as SED is a
Class 5 felony. Knowing and intentional assault to a person
resulting from an SED is a Class 4 felony. All felony offenses in Arizona are
serious, and carry prison time. Here is a closer look at the
definitions, laws, and sentencing resulting from these offenses.

Prohibited Weapon Laws in Phoenix AZ

ARS § 13-3101 (8) (a)(i)(vi)(vii)(viii)(ix): Prohibited Weapons:

Simulated explosives are considered Prohibited Weapons and include (list not all inclusive:
• Improvised explosive devices (IEDs);
• Bombs; grenades, Propellant charged rockets with charges of more than 4 ounces Explosive mine; or other poisonous or incendiary gas;
• Breakable container containing flammable liquids or gases that flash at 150 degrees
• Chemical or combination of chemicals, compounds or materials, that generate gas causing rupture or bursting of a container;
• Any combination of materials designed with the purpose of making any of the items listed above.

Prohibited Weapons Classifications and Sentencing:

ARS § 13-3102. A. (3) Misconduct with Prohibited Weapons:

Simulated explosives are considered “prohibited weapons”. A person may be guilty of Prohibited Weapons charges if they manufacture, possess, transport, sell; or transfer a “prohibited weapon”.

A person guilty of assault by a Prohibited Weapon is a class 4 felony
And Misconduct with a Prohibited Weapon. Under A.R.S. § 13 -702 Prison Sentencing for
Sentencing for Misconduct with a “Prohibited Weapon”
• 0.1.5 Years Minimum to 3.0 Maximum
• 0. 1 Year Minimum Mitigated to 3.75 Years Maximum Aggravated
Simulated Explosive Devices

ARS § 13-3101. A (3) Explosives Include (in part):
• Dynamite;
• Nitroglycerine
• Black powder;
• Plastic explosives;
• Materials used with the intent of making explosives

ARS § 13 – 3110. (A) (B)
Misconduct involving simulated explosives:

A person may be guilty of Misconduct involving explosives if with the knowledge and intent to intimidate, threaten, harass or terrify another person if they :

• Send or place a simulated explosive device in a public or private place; or
• Display, place or send the simulated explosive in a conspicuous location for collectible, curio, or show purposes without proper labeling; clear and immediate warning, or written notice of its hazard or danger
Simulated Explosive Offenses Classification and Penalties

Misconduct involving simulated explosive devices is a class 5 felony, whether or not injury or. Harm Under A.R.S. § 13 -702 Prison Sentencing for Convictions for Misconduct with simulated explosives may result in:
• 0.75 Years Minimum to 2.0 Maximum
• 0.5 Years Minimum Mitigated to 2.5 Maximum Aggravated
Criminal Defense Attorney for Prohibited Weapons Charges Phoenix AZ

If you have been arrested or charged with possession, use, misconduct or assault with a Prohibited Weapon, you should contact a criminal defense attorney to discuss your matter. You will need to strong legal representation to protect your rights, defend your charges, and help you avoid conviction and prison terms.

Resources Links:

http://www.azleg.gov/FormatDocument.asp?inDoc=/ars/13/03101.htm&Title=13&DocType=ARS

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Truth-in Sentencing Laws

Arizona Truth-in-Sentencing Laws were passed in 1993 pursuant to Senate Bill 1049, by the Arizona State Legislature. The laws revised Arizona Criminal Code the Truth-in-Sentencing Statutes under ARS § 13 – 101.7. The revised laws effected offenders who committed crimes after January 1, 1994. One of the provisions required a mandated 6 out of every 7 days of time to be served as ordered for a criminal conviction. The laws eliminated parole and many other early releases of inmates from prison, detention or parole, and converted to a more distinct set of mandated guidelines.

Earned Release Credits

Truth-in-Sentencing laws allow for an inmate to be eligible for earned release credits that could reduce their prison sentence up to a maximum 15% of the term for good behavior. Eligibility to earn release credits is based on designated classifications involving the following factors:

• Nature of the criminal offense (violent v. non-violent);
• Inmate’s threat to a victim or society;
• Disciplinary Sanctions for prison misconduct;
• Participation in work recommended;
• Participation in alcohol, drug, or other treatment program;
• Engagement in education, and training programs;
• Consistent and continued favorable evaluations
Effects on Probation and Parole in Phoenix AZ

• If a person is eligible for probation, the court may suspend the sentence and all for supervised probation. Probation Violations will result in reinstated to original sentencing of jail or prison and probation revocation.
• Parole is a supervised release outside of prison which takes place after an inmate has completed a portion of their sentence before the term is completed. The Parole Laws prior to January 1 1994 were more liberal, in that a person would be eligible for parole after serving one-half to two-thirds of their sentence. For those serving time who committed crimes prior to 1978 the inmates were eligible for parole after serving only one-third of the originally ordered sentence. Persons who were convicted of offenses prior to January 1, 1994 are still eligible for parole. Under the revised Laws of 1993, eligible parole dates are statutorily pre-determined based on the criminal offense and the laws in place at the time of the crime. The effects of the new law, in most cases, results in a longer prison term actually served before the inmate is eligible for release on supervised parole.

Supervised Community Service

The new Truth-in-Sentencing Laws also include provisions for Community Service, . whic takes place after the completed earned released date. Sometimes, the court will waive community service, and replace it with a term of probation. Community Service is usually made part of the imposed felony sentencing. It occurs in conjunction with the prison term. The number of days of the community supervised program is one day for every seven days of the sentence, as ordered by the court at the time of the initial sentencing.

Criminal Defense Attorney for Felony Charges Phoenix AZ

If retained, your criminal attorney will defend your felony or misdemeanor charges. They will make every effort to get a good resolution in your case. They will defend your charges, and guide you through the criminal justice system stages. You should discuss any concerns you have about the sentencing laws, in the event your charges can not be dismissed.

Article Resources:

http://static.nicic.gov/Library/012259.pdf

http://www.azleg.state.az.us/FormatDocument.asp?inDoc=/ars/13/00604.htm&Title=13&DocType=ARS

http://www.azleg.gov/FormatDocument.asp?inDoc=/ars/13/00101.htm&Title=13&DocType=ARS

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*No Probable Cause to Search Prohibited Possessor’s Home for Weapon*

On June 11, 2012, the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals reversed and remanded a conviction involving a firearm found at the home of a prohibited processor (felon). In order for the search to be constitutional under the Fourth Amendment “probable cause” for the search warrant is required. One exception to this would be under an “exclusionary rule” extension known as the “attenuated exception.” This exception could have only applied if the connection between the unlawful search and the conviction were weak. But the defendants argued on appeal that the connection between the discovery of the weapon through unconstitutional search and the conviction was too heavily weighted.

The lower district court held, that although there was lack of probable cause, a “good faith” exception was made to all the police to proceed with the unlawful search under the “good faith reliance doctrine” (United States v. Leon).

However, the 9th Circuit Court’s opinion reversing the decision felt that the good faith exception that resulted in the search warrant in absence of probable cause failed to meet “fair probability” or even a “as colorable argument” for probable cause that a firearm associated with the homicide at issue, would be found at the search warrant location. Therefore, it was determined that the officers’ warrant was unlawful, and the exception to the attenuated doctrine did not apply, and the evidence was obtained illegally. As a result, the firearm and ammunition evidence was suppressed, and all evidence gained following the unlawful search. As a result, the 9th Circuit Court reversed and remanded the conviction for further proceedings.

Exclusionary Rule: Exception Doctrines for Admittance of Criminal Evidence
The Exclusionary Rule or Doctrine disallows prosecution to admit evidence gained unlawfully in violation of the Fourth Amendment of the US Constitution. However, the Supreme Court has recognized some exceptions to this rule in favor of police, prosecution, by the State or Government against a defendant. This Exclusionary Rule has 4 exceptions, that would allow evidence to be admitted in court, that otherwise would not have been allowed because it was gathered unlawfully by police. The exceptions include the following circumstances:

• “Attenuation exception”: This allows for evidence to be admitted if the connection between the unlawful search and discovery of the evidence v. the conviction is sufficiently weak;
• Good-faith Doctrine: This exemption allows evidence, obtained unlawfully to be admitted. It applies when police acted in “good faith” by relying on a search warrant, that a “reasonable person” would have considered lawful; but later found unconstitutional.

• The criminal evidence was found as a result of an independent search, not the offense for which the defendant was convicted;
• The evidence would have been found despite the unlawful search
Resources:

http://law.justia.com/cases/federal/appellate-courts/ca9/11-50036/11-50036-2012-06-11.html

http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/good_faith_exception_to_exclusionary_rule

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On June 8, 2012, the US Department of Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) survey results. According to Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Summaries 2011 report, Arizona topped the nation at #1 with 26.5% for high school students who engaged and alcohol “binge drinking”. Arizona dropped to the number #2 spot for with 43.8 % of high school students admitting to current use of alcohol (just shy of Louisiana at 44.4%.)

Binge Drinking

Binge drinking is consuming 4 to 5 alcoholic beverages, or “shots” in a row, within a short period of time. One drink is considered a 12 ounce bottle of beer; 3 to 5 oz. of wine; or 1 to 1.5 oz. of 80-86 proof liquor. If any of these or any combination of these are consumed within a short time for example within one or two hours, a person is considered to be binge drinking.

Hazards of minor consumption of Alcohol and Binge Drinking

Binge drinking is the number one cause of alcohol poisoning which can cause serious injury, disease, liver failure, and even fatality. Other hazards include DUI and/or serious and fatal auto collisions if a person is a passenger in the vehicle of another driver who is driving drunk.

Underage DUI and Minor Consumption Zero Tolerance Laws
Arizona is considered to be a “0” tolerance state, meaning it is unlawful for a person to be found with any amount of alcohol in their body, whether they are impaired or not. There are a few exceptions under safe supervised conditions such as religious exercises, or medicinal purposes.
A.R.S. § 4-244. 41. It is unlawful to drinking spirituous liquor under age 21;
A.R.S. § 28-1381 A. (1). It is unlawful to drive if you are “impaired to the slightest degree” due to drugs or alcohol;
A.R.S. § 28-1381 A. (2). If the person is under twenty-one years of age, with spirituous liquor in the person’s body;
A.R.S. § 4-244. 34. It is unlawful for a person under age 21 years of age to drive or be in physical control of a motor vehicle if any amount of liquor has been consumed and found in a person’s body;
A.R.S. § 28-1381 B (1) is against the law to drive with a Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) of 0.08% or greater;
A.R.S. § 4- 241. It is unlawful for a person to buy, sell, give, or distribute liquor to a person under age 21.

Penalties for Underage Minor Consumption and Underage DUI Charges Tempe AZ

• 2 year driver’s license suspension or denial;
• Jail Term;
• Probation;
• Fines up to $500.00;
• Community Service;
• Alcohol education and counseling;
• Installation of ignition interlock device on vehicle

Minor Consumption – Underage DUI charges defense Tempe AZ

If you face charges for minor consumption or underage DUI, you should consult a criminal defense attorney before pleading guilty. There may be defenses you are not aware of that can help you save your driving privileges, avoid jail, or other favorable outcome in your case.

Resource Links:

http://goo.gl/ry4Yr

http://goo.gl/6MHYu

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Prohibited Possession or Use of Firearm Laws Phoenix Arizona

Under Arizona Law A.R.S. § 13-3102 a person may be guilty of misconduct with weapons if they knowingly:

1. Possess a “deadly weapon” or “prohibited weapon” and is a “prohibited possessor” as defined under A.R.S. § 13-3101; and/or
2. Transfers or sells a “deadly weapon” to a prohibited possessor or user.


Prohibited Possessors of Firearms

Under A.R.S. § 13-3101. 7. “prohibited possessor” is a person who is:

• Found to be danger to self or to others; disabled or gravely disabled under order; and whose right to possess a firearm has not been restored by Law in Arizona;
• A convicted felon in Arizona or any other state; adjudicated or delinquent of a felony offense; and whose civil right to possess or firearm has not been restored;
• Serving a term of imprisonment in any correctional or detention facility.

• Serving a term of probation for a crime of domestic violence, or a felony offense, parole, community supervision, home arrest, work release or other release while on parole or probation;
• Minors as defined under A.R.S. § 13-3111;
• An undocumented or nonimmigrant alien, in the state or any reason; or who is studying in this state and maintains a foreign residence outside of the USA. Certain exceptions apply to authorized nonimmigrant aliens;
(1) Who have valid and lawful sports hunting licenses issued in the USA;
(2) In the USA to participate in competitive target shooting, sports, hunting or trade show sponsored by the state or national firearms association or
(3) Certain authorized diplomats.

Weapons Crime Penalties for prohibited possessors of firearms
• If a person is found guilty of prohibited possession of a firearm in violation of their probation, it will result in reinstatement of the original sentencing of jail or incarceration, for which they were originally convicted and sentenced; and
• A person found carrying or using a firearm, if they are a prohibited possessor, will be charged with a Class 4 Felony;
• A persons found transferring or selling deadly weapons to a prohibited possessor will be charged with a Class 6 Felony;
Misconduct Involving Weapons Defense Attorney Phoenix AZ

Weapon crimes can be very serious, especially if a crime is committed and involves the use of a gun, or other weapon. A prohibited possessor of a gun will face loss of probation, parole, reinstatement of original sentencing, new and additional prison terms, fines, fees, loss of civil rights or inability to get them restored, if you had a prior felony conviction. If you face any charges involving weapons, you should consult a criminal attorney as soon as possible. If retained, they will preserve your rights, and defend your charges. Depending on the circumstances, there may be defenses that can be used to get charges dismissed or reduced, or factors that will mitigate sentencing.

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